Enjoy the view from the Wageningse Berg (En: mountain, 42 m above sea level). Below, the Lower Rhine river (Nederrijn) flows from east to west. However, the general flow direction of the Rhine is southeast to northwest. Why does the Rhine flow westwards once it enters the Netherlands? The reason is the mountain you are standing on! The mountain is a push moraine that was formed by the ice sheets of the Saalian ice age (380,000-130,000 years ago). These ice sheets also formed the push moraine complexes that shape ‘de Utrechtse Heuvelrug’ (to the west) and ‘de Veluwe’ (to the northeast; see Figure below ). The push moraines are dominantly composed of coarse sands and gravels that were deposited by precursors of the Rhine and Meuse; before the Saalian these were braided rivers that were still flowing north-westwards.
The ‘Gelderse Vallei’ surrounded by the push moraine complexes such as de Utrechtse Heuvelrug and de Veluwe.

Point of interest 1: Arboretum Belmonte

You found point of interest 1️⃣! This is the start of the field excursion. The excursion focusses on four elements: landscape, soils, hydrology and land use.