When it comes to conditions that influence the vegetation, soil pH (how acidic is the soil) is very important. Soils with higher pH ⏫ (>5, less acidic) are generally better soils with more organisms living in the soil and mixing in the litter, creating a good soil structure and water retention. These are the soils that support forests with high and healthy trees and many herb species. You can recognize these forests since they have almost no litter laying on the ground.
Soils with lower pH 🔻 (around 4, very acidic) are generally infertile soils that do not have much soil life, here the litter is decomposed mostly by bacteria and fungi, which do not mix it into the soil that well, creating a smaller layer of mixed soil. These forests have a thicker layer of litter and are very common in the Netherlands. Below you can see a picture of hyphae which are fungal 🍄 threats that you can spot in the litter layer. You could try to find one, but be careful, they easily break.
Now that you know this information, it is time for some more questions!

Location 1: Zoomweg – Soil

Here you will take a soil profile. First, try to find an auger (grondboor) and a pH-set (you will need this later). Then, make a hole as you…